@▷ PWM Motor Speed Controller with Current limiting | Diagram for Schematic

PWM Motor Speed Controller with Current limiting

PWM Motor Speed Controller with Current limiting
Current limiting is absolutely essential. If the motor is stalled, it can take huge currents which would destroy the MOSFETs very quickly. The form of current limiting presented here is to measure the current that the motor is taking, and if it is above a preset threshold, turn the MOSFETs in the bridge off. If you have a microcontroller on board which generates the PWM ratio, it would be an advantage if the software could detect the over- current status, and reduce the PWM ratio by, say, 10%.

The voltage dropped across the sense resistor is amplified by U1A, which is connected in a differential amplifier circuit. The gain of this is 480k / 1k which is 480. This is a very large gain because the voltage dropped across the sense resistor will be very small. The output of the differential amplifier is then heavily low pass filtered by RxCx. This is because there will be a lot of noise coming from the motor, and we do not want to limit the current if we don’t need to. D13 is present to make sure that no negative spikes can affect the following circuitry. U2B compares the filtered signal with a preset value (represented here by V5), and if the current is too high (i.e. the signal is greater than V5), U2B will turn Q1 and Q2 on which clamps the PWM signals from the PWM generator. This will force the MOSFET driver to turn the MOSFET off. Q1 must be repeated four times, one for each of the MOSFET driver channels, but all four transistors can be driven from U2B. D11, R14 and C4 make sure that the MOSFET doesn’t turn back on straight away, but takes a few milliseconds. This stops the MOSFET being rapidly turned on and off.

Source:http://homepages.which.net/~paul.hills/SpeedControl/SpeedControllersBody.html
Thank You.

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